The design, feasibility, and optimization of an ammonia bottoming cycle for power generation

by Robert Edward Fishman

Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Written in English
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Sustainable Ammonia Production. This Virtual Special Issue was organized in an effort to report recent advancements on sustainable NH 3 production ranging from conceptually new ammonia synthesis methods using photocatalysis and electrochemistry to the techno-economic assessment of ammonia as a fuel vector. The current “Sustainable Ammonia Production” VSI collection features perspectives. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducts research, development, and demonstration projects for the benefit of the public in the United States and internationally. As an independent, nonprofit organization for public interest energy and environmental research, we focus on electricity generation, delivery, and use in collaboration with the electricity sector, its stakeholders and. The Stirling engine (or Stirling's air engine as it was known at the time) was invented and patented in It followed earlier attempts at making an air engine but was probably the first put to practical use when, in , an engine built by Stirling was employed pumping water in a quarry. The main subject of Stirling's original patent was a heat exchanger, which he called an "economiser. Fig Solar Field for 50 kWe power generation. The following describes a summary of the background research that was needed to move forward with the design and construction of the power plant. Parabolic Trough Concentrators. The performance of parabolic trough based solar power plants over the last 25 years has proven that this.

demonstrate the feasibility of the osmotic heat engine for the practical conversion of low temperature heat sources to power. 2. Closed cycle ammonia–carbon dioxide osmotic heat engine A draw solution composed of ammonium salts formed by the introduction of ammonia and carbon dioxide into water may be used in an OHE to generate electrical. Ammonia Data Book May cycle that result in production or transformation of ammonia: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification. As part of this cycle, nitrogen gas and oxidized forms of nitrogen are transformed and returned to the biological world. Ammoniated fuel will power an engine or burner with very little modification. Thus, the transition to an ammonia-based fuel economy can be as slow or as fast as societal conditions permit. In summary, there are many advantages to be achieved by adopting this alternate fuel technology of an ammonia-based fuel. Its application can be immediate.   The catalyst is in a vertical flow reactor with internal turning vanes, flow rectifier and a flue gas/ammonia mixing device. The design contains room for three full layers of catalyst with 1 1/2.

Ammonia is a colorles s gas with a pungent odor that is noticeable at concentrations above 50 ppm. It is poisonous if inhaled in great quantities and is irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat in lesser amounts. At normal atmospheric pressure, ammonia has a boiling point of EF and a freezing point of EF. Abstract. The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6, hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $/kWhe (real $). optimization and systenls analysis we have developed a spreadsheet based computer model to help design life­ cycle optimized industrial refrigeration systems. The model incorporates the effect ofclimate and load profile on Refrigeration Cycle Pressure Enthalpy Diagram (Ammonia) text or reference book (Le. the pressure enthalpy diagram. Development, design, test, delivery of power generation projects: • Conceptual design of a 20 MW wood gasification plant • Feasibility assessment of a cogen wood gasification plantTitle: Consulting Principal, Intelligent .

The design, feasibility, and optimization of an ammonia bottoming cycle for power generation by Robert Edward Fishman Download PDF EPUB FB2

The design, feasibility, and optimization of an ammonia. used to analyze the current state of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) industrial bottoming and topping cycle The bottoming cycle is the focus of the paper since this approach to CHP is underutilized and also presents challenges in addition to those for the topping cycle.

CHP technology is overviewed before the data analysis is Size: KB. [5] J. Tallaksen, Life Cycle Assesment of Corn Grain at WCROC, Morris, MN: Morris SunTribune, Read the abstract at the AIChE website. DOWNLOAD. Download this presentation. RELATED NH3 FUEL CONFERENCE PAPERS. Ammonia Absorption and Desorption in Ammines Design Optimization of a Distributed Ammonia Generation System.

This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. traditional design of steam turbines can be used in the ammonia-water power cycles only with minor modifications.

Also, the boiling point of ammonia is substantially lower than that of water, which makes it practically useful to utilize the low-temperature waste heat in the feasibility generation systems [1]-[3].

Kalina proposed a novel cycle in to be used as a bottoming cycle utilizing waste heat from the exhaust of gas turbines [13].The proposed configuration was called Kalina cycle system 1 (KCS 1). This cycle uses ammonia–water mixture as the working fluid where the concentration of ammonia varies along the cycle.

Nord et al. [27] performed an optimization procedure to minimize weight-to-power ratio design of steam bottoming cycle for offshore oil and gas installations.

From the optimization algorithm. The performance of the topping cycle is not affected by the change in this variable.

Therefore, only the bottoming cycle performance changes by varying r p, K T 1. Consequently, as can be seen in Fig. 12a, the increased power generation rate of first Kalina turbine overcomes the decrement in the second Kalina turbine’s power.

Hence, the. Feasibility Assessment for ORC Generation System Development Using Low Temperature Geothermal Water Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation for Energy Recovery From Air Compressors.

ES Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit Using Multi-Component Working Fluids. GT Exhaust gases from diesel engines can be an adequate source of energy to run a bottoming Rankine cycle to increase the overall efficiency of the engine as it contains a significant portion of input energy.

Using the optimized heat exchangers the additional power generation was estimated by considering actual turbine efficiency.

ammonia occurs when a person is unable to leave a gaseous ammonia environment, and and optimization of an ammonia bottoming cycle for power generation book the liquid comes in contact with the body, particularly the eyes. The odor of ammonia is widely recognized.

The odor threshold reported in literature varies. One study indicates subjects could detect ammonia. Such features could challenge the feasibility to bring the concept to the market in a reasonable time.

The OCC requires a higher pressure ratio compared to a conventional combined cycle in order to achieve exhaust conditions that fit the design of the bottoming cycle. However, a high gas turbine pressure ratio increases the complexity of the. Rankine cycle to be used as a bottoming cycle for combined cycle power plants.

The composition of the ammonia-water mixture used in the cycle is de ned by the ammonia mass fraction, i.e. the ratio of the mass of ammonia in the mixture to the total mass of the mixture. The change in the mixture composition Corresponding author.

Tel.: +45 Two ammonia–water concentration values were used, and It can be seen that the thermal efficiency of the Kalina cycle with the ammonia–water concentration of is significantly higher than that of the ORC using ammonia and Ra at evaporator pressures below 20 bars.

Bahlouli Keyvan, Khoshbakhti Saray Rahim, Thermoeconomic Multi-objective Optimization of an Ammonia-Water Power/Cooling Cycle Coupled with a HCCI Engine, Exergy for A Better Environment and Improved Sustainability 1, /_65, (), (). Downloadable (with restrictions). An ammonia-water power cycle with a distillation stage is proposed, two Kalina cycles and one Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) are selected for comparisons under two scenarios: medium ( °C) and low ( °C) heat source temperatures.

The optimization efforts are aimed at maximizing net power production for all concerning cycles, the results show that the. Maximum power output and thermal conversion efficiency are the goals of ORC thermodynamic analysis.

Co-optimization of energetic performance and system cost is needed for pre-feasibility design analysis. This paper presents a pre-feasibility design investigation for a binary geothermal power plant using a typical geothermal resource in New Zealand.

Optimum and cost-effective design of the power cycles provide a means of utilization of low-temperature heat sources which might otherwise be discarded.

In this analysis, the performance of the Kalina cycle system 11 (KCS11) is examined for low-temperature geothermal heat sources and is compared with an organic Rankine cycle.

Ammonia is formed from nitrogen and hydrogen by the reversible reaction given below, and its production is favored by high pressures and low temperatures. The objective of this reactor project is to design an ammonia synthesis plant and find the optimum operating conditions which will yield metric tons of ammonia per day.

Downloadable (with restrictions). The algorithm presented in this work has been developed to search for the optimal topology and design parameters of a set of Rankine cycles forming an energy system that absorbs/releases heat at different temperature levels and converts part of the absorbed heat into electricity.

This algorithm can deal with several applications in the field of energy. thermodynamic analysis is conducted. The Goswami cycle, used as a bottoming cycle, uses ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces power and refrigeration while power is the primary goal.

Figure 5 shows a schematic of the Rankine-Goswami cycle. Keywords: Kalina cycle, part-load, ammonia-water mixture, concentrating solar power plant 1. Introduction The Kalina cycle was introduced in [1] as an alternative to the conventional Rank-ine cycle to be used as a bottoming cycle for combined cycle power plants.

It uses a mixture of ammonia and water as the working. Power Engineering is the definitive online resource for power generation professionals. Stay up to date with the latest industry developments. From small-scale fossil ammonia, to small-scale green ammonia While each of these projects relies on natural gas usage, each will demonstrate the viability of small-scale ammonia synthesis technologies.

One benefit of reducing the ammonia plant size is that it better matches the scale of renewable power generation. Ammonia production increased, costs went down and the plant operators had better information to make decisions.

I followed A.J. Weissenfelder at Borden Chemical in and one of the first things I found was that it was so much easier to modify the advanced control schemes on the computer than trying to change the configuration of board.

The project is called Power to Ammonia. The team behind it is an industrial powerhouse with serious intentions, and this feasibility study is the first part of their plan: next come the pilot plants and demonstrations. As OCI Nitrogen explains, “there are still many hurdles to be overcome.

A feasibility study of implementing an Ammonia Economy By Jeffrey Ralph Bartels A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty internal combustion engines and fuel cells for conversion to mechanical and electrical power, respectively.

In addition, the only product of hydrogen combustion is. About this book. Ammonia is one of the most important inorganic basic chemicals, not only for the manufacture of fertilizers (85%) but also for the production of plastics, fibers, explosives, and intermediates for dyes and pharmaceuticals.

It is an essential reaction component for the synthesis of numerous organic chemicals used as solvents and. technical report: thermodynamic analysis of ammonia-water-carbon dioxide mixtures for designing new power generation cycles. IIAR Ammonia Data Book, (). 10/12/15 6 11 12 Materials compatibility for ammonia.

Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals. There are numerous large-scale ammonia production plants worldwide, producing a total of million tonnes of nitrogen (equivalent to million tonnes of ammonia) in China produced % of the worldwide production, followed by Russia with %, India with %, and the United States with %.

80% or more of the ammonia.The design, optimization, and laboratory testing of a solar-driven organic Rankine cycle water jump for irrigation are described. The computer model of the system used for optimization and performance analysis is described. The laboratory test successfully demonstrated the concept, and the conceptual design of a prototype pump is given.The coefficients of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (refrigerator, A/C) are defined as COPh = Qh Ws = n_(h1 ¡h2) n_(h1 ¡h4) and COPc = Qc Ws = n_(h4 ¡h3) n_(h1 ¡h4) (1) respectively.

Heat pumps typically have a COP of around 3 which indicates that 33% of the gained heat is addet as work (eg. electric power.